What is prostate cancer?
Prostate cancer occurs when abnormal cells develop in the prostate. These abnormal cells can continue to multiply in an uncontrolled way and sometimes spread outside the prostate into nearby or distant parts of the body.
Despite being a serious disease, most of the cases are in an early-stage when detected or they grow slowly. This means they have a low risk of spreading and may not even need any immediate treatment or surgery, what allows to promote and maintain a high level of quality of life, and prevents the patient from the chances to suffer from adverse events such as sexual, urinary, and bowel dysfunction after pursuing a sometimes not necessary aggressive treatment.
For this reason, it is important to focus on reaching a precise diagnosis of the cancer case, which let doctors identify where and how the lesion is and its stage and consequently to bring adapted answers to every patient.
What are the symptoms of prostate cancer?
Prostate cancer may cause no signs or symptoms in its early stages. In the later stages, some symptoms of prostate cancer might include:
- Feeling the frequent or sudden need to urinate
- Trouble urinating (for example, trouble starting or not being able to urinate or urine flow is poor)
- Discomfort when urinating
- Blood in semen or urine
- Discomfort in the pelvic area
- Bone pain
- Erection problems
These symptoms may not mean you have prostate cancer, but if you have any of these signs that worry you, make an appointment with your doctor.
Which tests are done to diagnose prostate cancer?
Most prostate cancers are first found during screening, as in early stage do not develop any symptom. However, more advanced cancers may cause some urinary or sexual problem that can reveal the disease. If cancer is suspected, some tests will be needed, as well as a final biopsy that will eventually confirm if there is a cancer or not.
The most common screening tests helping to detect evidence of the disease are PSA blood test and Digital rectal Exam.
What is the PSA test?
This test measures the amount of Prostate Specific Antigen in the blood. PSA is a protein produced by cells in the prostate. A man with prostate cancer often present elevated levels of PSA. However, some men who have prostate cancer have a low PSA level. And PSA levels can also be raised by several other medical conditions not related to cancer.
What is a prostate biopsy?
A prostate biopsy is a procedure to remove samples of suspicious tissue from the prostate. it involves the insertion of a thin needle into the prostate to take a certain number of prostate tissue samples from your prostate gland. It is usually prescribed and carried out by a urologist after screening reveals some suspicious but non-specific evidence of the disease, from Digital Rectal examination, Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA), or Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI).
The tissue sample removed is analyzed under the microscope by an anatomopathologist who confirms the presence or the absence of abnormal cells and, if necessary, gives a Gleason score, numbered from 1 to 5 for each abnormal area. When removed samples that are closely located share similar results, there might be evidence of a lesion. The biopsy shall confirm any be found, their location, size and aggressiveness shall be recorded in order to talk and determine the best treatment option.
How a biopsy is performed?
The prostate biopsy exam consists of taking several samples of prostate tissue, which then examined under a microscope. Samples containing cancer cells are said to be positive while the others are said to be negative. With the KOELIS system, biopsy is performed under guidance of 3D transrectal ultrasound. The 3D image enables physicians to track and see the prostate in real time during the examination, to guide and to distribute the biopsy cores. They can in this way create a precise 3D mapping of the taken samples.
For 20 years, the biopsy needle has been inserted along with an ultrasound probe that displays a cross-sectional image of the organ. Ultrasound by itself cannot visualize and describe cancerous lesions. Also, it is very difficult to locate, describe and archive the exact location of 3-dimensional samples in a 2-dimensional ultrasound image of the organ.
Nowadays, most of prostate biopsies are performed via transrectal approach with a 2D ultrasound probe without any guidance or recording. For this reason, these biopsies are called to be « blind”, giving very low positive detection rate (20-30%).
How long does a biopsy take to deliver?
A transrectal or transperineal biopsy procedure itself takes approximately 30 minutes.
What are the anesthesia requirements?
Interventions can be made in general or local anesthesia even transperineal interventions
What is active surveillance?
Active surveillance is a type of treatment for prostate cancer in which the doctor monitors the tumour and its growth, based on a strict visiting schedule. During each visit, several tests are done including a test to check the level of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in the blood. The aim is to switch to other treatment options if there are signs that the disease is progressing.
Active surveillance is a treatment pathway to cure localized prostate cancer. If the tumour has grown out of the prostate and invaded other tissue in the lower urinary tract, other treatments will be recommended.
How Many Procedures Have Been Performed Using Trinity Technology?
Approximately 200 000 patients in the world have benfited of KOELIS Technology in more than 25 countries.
What kind of prostate treatments can Trinity® be used with?
Trinity® assists urologists in the performance of effortless but efficient targeted treatments via either the transrectal or transperineal approach. KOELIS provides a comprehensive tool that will help clinicians to optimize their intervention thanks to the precise planning and live guidance of any needle-based prostate cancer therapy technique, such as brachytherapy, IRE or cryotherapy.
Is There Clinical Evidence Supporting the Benefits Of Trinity?
Yes, Numerous peer-reviewed publications and presentations at leading scientific conferences have validated the accuracy, usability, and clinical advantages of KOELIS technology.
To read our last publication please visit the Peer-Reviewed Library page!